Niavaran Palace is a historical complex situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It is 11,000 square meters area. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The main Niavaran palace completed in1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the imperial family until Iranian revolution. The main palace was designed by the Iranian architect Mohsen Foroughi (1958). Presently, it is comprised of five museums: 1) Niavaran palace 2) Ahmad Shahi Pavilion 3) Sahebqeraniyeh Palace 4) Jahan Nama Palace 5) Private library and other cultural, historical and natural attractions including the Blur hall, private cinema, Jahan Nama Gallery and Niavaran garden.
1. Niavaran Palace
The quadrilateral design of the palace and its interior archeological design are inspired by Iranian archeology while making use of modern technology. Its decoration has also been inspired by the pre and post Islamic art. The gypsum work has been carried out by Master Abdollahi, the mirror work by Master Ibrahim Kazempour. The building floor is covered by black stone and has an aluminum sliding roof. The internal decoration and furniture of the place have been designed and implemented by a French group. In the ground floor of this building there is a great hall, in which all the rooms are situated, including a private cinema, dining room, guest room, waiting room and lateral hall as well as the Blue hall. In the half floor of this building, the office conference room, Farah Diba's secretary's room, Leila's bedroom and her retainer's room. In the stairways there is a room where Mohammad Reza's military uniforms and official suits and his medals are kept. In the third floor, Pahlavi's resting palace and his children's and the retainer's rooms are situated. These palaces are all decorated with precious paintings carpets and gifts received from different countries.
Covering an area of 800 square meters north of Sahebqeraniyeh palace, this two-storied Pavilion was built in the closing days of the Qajar period, as a private resting retreat for Ahmad shah with brick facades and decoration. The brick facades have various designs and are in buff color. The entrance of the pavilion is situated in the southern side of the building, which is joined to the pavilion by various stairs which pass aside a pond covered with tiles. The Ahmad Shahi Pavilion after a restoration and interior additions was utilized as the residence and office of Reza Pahlavi by completely changing its furniture during the Pahlavi II. The ground floor of this building consists of a hall with a pond made of marble stone. In its center with six rooms and two corridors around. Decorative items made of silver, bronze, ivory, wood and souvenirs from different countries such as India, paintings, medals, etc. have been exhibited in its palace. Also other items including decorative mineral stones, a stone from moon, various plants and animal fossils are kept in this building. The second floor of this building consists of a central hall and a four sided veranda. All around the main hall which was used as the music room, wooden shelves have been installed. All around the veranda is covered by six square brick columns and 26 round gypsum columns. The gypsum work pattern of lion and sun can be seen on the northern wall of veranda.
3. Sahebqeraniyeh Palace
Nasser edin Shah ordered ton have the Niavaran palace erected in two floors including Shah-Neshin (formal reception area), Korsi-Khaneh (winter sitting room), bathroom, and forty to fifty buildings each consisting of four rooms and a terrace housed by his consorts. During the 31th year of his reign, he called himself as the Sahebqeran and hence called this palace as Sahebqeraniyeh. After him Mozaffaredin Shah made some changes in the building and ruined a part of the harem. The constitution was also signed by him in the yard of this palace. Under Pahlavi I, this palace was renovated for the marriage of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi with princess Fawziah for receiving the guests but due to severe winter the ceremonies were not held there. Under Pahlavi II, Farah Diba made basic changes in its internal decorations and building and the first floor, i.e. Hose-Khaneh (pool room), was used for receiving the guests and the second floor was used as the office of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Other rooms of this palace include: Sofreh Khaneh (dining room), tea-house, bar, game rooms in the first floor, and meeting room, waiting room for the foreign missions, secretary, dentist room and resting Palace of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. All the doors and windows of this building are decorated with colorful glasses. It was repaired in 1995 and re-opened as a museum in 1998.
4. Jahan Nama Museum
In 1976, a section in the western part of Sahebqeraniyeh palace was allocated to the souvenirs received and items purchased by Farah Diba, with four halls in the ground floor and one hall in the underground floor. On the ceiling of the main hall of this museum, exquisite paintings on wood furniture flower and bird pattern of Shiraz can be seen. This museum was opened in 1997. The works of this museum have been exhibited in 2 parts, pre-historic art and the contemporary art works of Iran and the world. Some of the works include: pre-Columbian works, the metal work of Lorestan, the ceramic works of Amlash, the art works of the Red Indian of the northern America, related to the first and second centuries before Christ and works by contemporary Iranian artists including: Sohrab Sepehri, Nasser Owesi, Faramarz Pilaram, Jafar Roohbakhsh, Parviz Kalantari, Bahman Mohassess, Sirak Melkonian, Jazeh Tabatabayi, Mash Ismail, Parviz Tanavoli and some other non-Iranian artists.
5. Private Library
The private library of Niavaran palace is situated in the eastern part of the palace in two floors and one underground floor in 770 square meters area and it was built in 1976. The interior designing of this building has been carried out by Aziz Farman Farmayan and Charles Serigny. It possesses different features from the point of view of architecture prevailing in the 1960s along with a combination of glass and stone. The building is allocated to library in three separated levels. The main part of the library consists of the reading room, the book shelves are kept in the ground and the first floor. Other existing spaces consist of the place for the person in charge of the library, the audio and visual room, toilet, etc. in addition to this a major part of the underground floor is allocated for keeping the books and the paintings. In the interior designing of the building a combination of bronze and glass has been used to great extent. About 300 bright cylinders provide the required lighting of the library. This library was completely reorganized after 25 months of practical and hard efforts. This library consists of about 23,000 books, mainly in Farsi and French in the fields of literature and history of art. The oldest of this book has been printed in Paris 1609 and the latest book of this collection has entered the library in 1979. Other parts of this library include a collection of art works, which consists of over 350 works can show a part of the contemporary art history, especially the modern tendencies of Iranian art in 1950s-60s. this library was inaugurated in 1994 on the occasion of the commemoration of the culture Heritage anniversary and the world museum day.