Ganj Nameh is an ancient inscription, 5 km southwest of Hamadan, on the side of Alvand Mountain in Iran. The inscriptions were carved in granite in two sections. The one on the left was ordered by Darius the Great (521-485 BC) and the one on the right by Xerxes the Great (485-65 BC). Both sections were craved in three ancient languages: Old Persian, Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Elamite. The inscriptions start with praise of the Zoroastrian God (Ahura Mazda) and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings.
Later generations who could not read the cuneiform alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasure; hence they called it Ganj Nemeh (Ganjnameh). The name literally means “treasure epistle”, but it has also been called Jangnameh whose literal translation is “war epistle”.
The first word of the column is “bagn” that means God. In contemporary history many Orientalists interested to decode the inscriptions such as Ozen Flanden, French archeologist and Pascal Cast his assistant (1840-1841 AD). At last Sir Henry Rovilnson- an English Scientist, deciphered it and the people belief that these inscriptions are hidden treasures written codes was interpreted. The following is the Darius inscription translation in English:
“A great god is Ahura Mazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many. I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of countries containing all kinds of men, king in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.”
Both inscriptions have the same Content except the name Xerxes instead of Darius, Vishtasb instead of Darius and the phrase; “hyah maoistah baganam” which means: “who is the greatest God” in the Xerxes inscription.
The translation of the text on the right plate, attributed to Xerxes, is:
“The Great God Ahura Mazda, greatest of all the gods, who created the earth and the sky and the people; who made Xerxes king, and outstanding king as outstanding ruler among innumerable rulers; I the great king Xerxes, king of kings, king of lands with numerous inhabitants, king of this vast kingdom with far-away territories, son of the Achaemenid monarch Darius.”